Modern English Poetry is of a cosmopolitan nature, with English, Irish and American poets achieving eminence. The lectures form but the tip of the iceberg, providing you with a door to your own research and study. It was the poetry of the new age of discovery, enthusiasm and excitement. Their differences are reflected in their work, although their pithiness unites them. This phase in the history of English Literature is called Restoration as monarchy was restored in England, and Charles II, whose father had been executed after his defeat by the parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell, came back to England from his exile in France and became the King. Orwell was also a good short story writer. He is the quintessential Celtic Irishman, a friend of Shaw and Wilde, and a good dramatist and poet. He then left for Paris, changing his name to Sebastian Melmoth, dying two years later. He tries to include within the limits of the novel almost everything and not a merely one-sided view of it. The plays took a new form, which lacked emotional approach to life and poetry. Students will become acquainted with writers, poets and playwrights such as Thomas Hardy, William Somerset Maugham, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, Henry Williamson, John Betjeman, Ted Hughes, Charles Causley, Samuel Beckett, Laurie Lee, Agatha Christie and John Le Carr�. Harold Pinter, famous for his skilful repartee, wrote, inter alia, �The Birthday Party� and �The Caretaker�. • sense of fragmentation and loss of faith. The significance lies in the fact that they brought the educated class in touch with a more advanced form of drama as compared to the old English play. The literature of this era was preceded by romanticism and was followed by modernism or realism . There was the free use of indirect speech and allusion to myths and stories from another time. Modernism. The prominent authors in this age were University Wits - Shakespeare (thirty-seven plays and 154 sonnets), Ben Johnson, Spencer and Christopher Marlowe. Science made a massive progress, and Darwinism and other such theories (which challenged religious beliefs), greatly welcomed doubts and skepticism. The concept of the modern world as distinct from an ancient or medieval world rests on a sense that the modern world is not just another erain history, but rather the result of a new type of change. In contrast, his �Dubliners�, a series of short stories about life in Dublin, is surprisingly prosaic in style. So good was it, that Walt Disney twice approached him for the film rights, and was roundly rejected. The novel of the Modern Age is realistic in nature. Let's see some of the most crucial characteristics of the most important literary periods: Middle Ages: The literary writings are in Old English. Spare their women for Thy Sake, And if that is not too easy We will pardon Thy mistake. modern has evolved to be less euro-centric, more generally useful for tracking related historical events across vast regions, as the cultural influences and dynamics from one region impacting on distant others has become more appreciated. became increasingly politically conscious and highly critical of Anglo-American foreign policy. Modernist poetry is characterized by themes of disillusionment, fragmentation and alienation from society. Nevertheless, he was a competent writer. From Alice�s fantasy world, the Scotsman Kenneth Graham takes us to the fantasy world of little animals, with �The Wind in the Willows�, written to his son. And now, dear Lord, I cannot wait Because I have a luncheon date.� (from �In Westminster Abbey�). Although they are for adults and older children, �Charlie and the Chocolate Factory� is definitely for young people. As literature is the reflection of society, the various changes which have come about in the English society from the earliest to the modern times have left their stamp on English literature. From the latter, we have the memorable quote: �The question is�, said Alice, �whether you can make words mean different things.� The question is, said Humpty Dumpty, �which is to be master, that�s all.� It was rumoured that he had a not wholly healthy interest in young girls, although there is not a jot of evidence that he ever did anything untoward. Evaluation is by written unseen examination, in the form of short essays. When men die of disease, they are said to die from natural causes. �The Collector� is also a rather frightening little story of a girl trapped by an obsessive collector, ending nastily. with another woman or more. He was in British Naval Intelligence for a while. It weighed, they said, as much as three men. The major poets of this age are William Langland, John Gower and Chaucer. Some of his other books are �Smiley�s Circus�, �A Small town in Germany�, �A Perfect Spy� and �The Constant Gardener� which, despite the alleged end of the Cold War, is as thrilling as ever, questioning the morality of big business. The course takes the form of lectures, to which students may contribute their research. No age in English Literature has produced poets as those belonging to this age. Writers mixed images from the past with modern languages and themes, creating a collage of styles. Writing was not given much importance.The Anglo-Saxons were made up of three tribes who came to England through the North Sea route – the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. It has vitality, rich variety and continuity. It also implies that literature should serve to reveal the world’s absurdities, paradoxes and ironies. The essence lay in the fact that literature must reflect all that is spontaneous and unaffected in nature and man, and it must be free to follow its own fancy, in its own way. We now look at three childrens� writers, Lewis Carroll (real name Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, an Oxford mathematician, non-practising Anglican deacon, and photographer, 1832-1898), Kenneth Graham (1859-1932), and Beatrix Potter (1866-1943). They dealt with the stories of King Arthur, The War of Troy and the mythical doings of Charlemagne and of Alexander the Great. That is why some critics called him a … There is not a hard and fast rule for when the Victorian period ended (outside the death of Queen Victoria) and when Modernism began. Moving now to more social and even sexual themes, we come to D.H. (David Herbert Richard) Lawrence (1885-1930). For many post-modern writers, the various disasters that occurred in the last half of the 20th century left a number of writers with a profound sense of paranoia. Whereas earlier, most literature had a clear beginning, middle, and end (or introduction, conflict, and resolution), the Modernist story was often more of a stream of consciousness. Modern English Poetry is of a cosmopolitan nature, with English, Irish and American poets achieving eminence. He is great enough, as it is. UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA FACULTY OF HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH SHALANI GOBIFELWANG 200602865; MR SEDA MODERN ENGLISH DRAMA ENG 482 21-04-2010; Using any two plays that you have studied in this course list and analyse any three characteristics, features or conventions of drama of the modern period. Hence, it can also be called a fusion of romantic and realist style of writing. Moreover, it was the age of revolutionary change, not only in view of the character and function of poetry, but in the whole conception of the nature of man and of the world in which he found himself. The most noteworthy achievement during this period was in the field of drama. After all, Oscar Wilde believed that art is for art�s sake, and should not be polluted by politics. Cultural and Literary in Modernity: 10. Gone were the days when it was believed that the job of the poet was only to create “beauty”. The Middle English Literature means English literature that developed during the period from 1100 to 1500 century. Nothing but bounce and stab And a ravening second.� (from �Thrushes�). Modernist writers broke free of old forms and techniques. Nothing was considered certain and people strove for realism and meaning of life. The Puritan movement is marked by the rebirth of moral nature of man, which followed the intellectual awakening of Europe. So we come to a mammoth of English literature, William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965). What do you think?� �Compare the works of Agatha Christie to those of John Le Carr�.� It goes without saying, almost, that merely learning the above few pages, parrot-fashion, will not be sufficient to pass the examination: they represent only a skeletal outline. The Anglo-Saxons lost their initial hostility to the newcomers with time, and they became part and parcel of one nation. If I compare Tolkien to Rowling�s �Harry Potter�, the latter catapults itself out of existence. The Renaissance showed its strong influence when Geoffrey Chaucer , William Langland and … This highly educated chap is known, inter alia, for �Old Possum�s Book of Practical Cats�. Thus, in his plays, he criticized, inter alia, slum landlords and private doctors. English Romantic Poetry: 14. He wrote a series of short stories, �Tales of the Unexpected�, so gripping that they were serialised on television. English literature is the last child of the Renaissance which commenced in Italy after the downfall of Constantinople by the Turkish ruler . Bonn was a Balkan city, stained and secret [�].� In juxtaposition, Ian Fleming (1908-1964), author of the extremely well-known Bond novels, emphasises, perhaps a mite too much, the more glamorous aspects of the job, but nevertheless remains plausible. Another major Romantic genre is the fairytale, which may be defined as "a brief story with magical elements". Poets abandoned traditional rhyme schemes and wrote in free verse. Th… During this time, novel writing became the most prominent literary work. Graham Greene (1904-91), who converted to Rome in 1926, was educated at Oxford, and worked for British Intelligence for a while. Characteristics of Modernism • Note of pessimism, disillusionment and melancholy in writing. Irony, satire, and comparisons were often employed to point out society's ills. Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Nestlé named top plastic polluters. The Modernist Period in English Literature occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly 1965.