2011;59(1):129-31. tmhung1810@yahoo.com Two new flavonoid glycosides, (1, 2), and eleven … Static bioassay techniques [7] were employed in the determination of acute toxicity of Chromoleana odorata extracts on juvenile catfish. kuala lumpur . [4] Chromolaena odorata in Hyderabad, India. Parameters observed toxicity is LD50 and delayed toxic effects for 14 days of observation including changes in weight, the volume of water consumption, and the … Figure 10. Behavioral responses of Clarias gariepinus during 96 hrs of exposure to C. odorata. Standard method for bioassay as described by [4] was used. Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. C. ODORATA IN LIVESTOCK FEEDING Information on the use of C.O. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. References [1] "Chromolaena odorata" (http:/ deformation of gill tissue with overlapping of secondary lamella and On the other hand, pH and dissolved oxygen significantly (P < 0.05) decreased as the concentrations of C. odorata leaves extract increased. Keywords: Acute toxicity, sub-chronic toxicity, Chromolaena odorata INTRODUCTION Chromolaena odorata formerly known as Eupatorium odoratum (Fam. The fish were weighed using electronic sensitive weighing balance scale (OHAUS) model (No4002) to determine the average weight of the experimental fish and a meter rule was used to measure the lengths of the fish (with a mean length of (12.40 ± 2.46) and weight of (8.26 ± 1.26)). The leaves were harvested fresh, air dried for 7 days under length variation. Table 1. Clarias gariepinus. A research on the acute toxicity of ethanol extracts of leaves kirinyuh (Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M.King & H.Rob). It was transferred to the genus Chromolaena by King and Robinson (1970), and although this conception of the tribe Eupatorieae has met some disagreement among botanists, the new binomial of Chromolaenaodorata (L.) R.M. As a rule, a toxicity test is valid if control mortality was less than 10% [9] . university of malaya . Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Fam. Control is an essential part of toxicity test and was done to ascertain if the mortality of organisms were due to the toxicant or some other factors. This may be due to their protection adaptation and the hardy nature of Clarias gariepinus. Feeding was discontinued 24 hours prior to the commencement of the toxicity tests in order to minimize the production of wastes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for significant differences in the number of survivors in different concentrations of the toxicants (Chromoleana odorata extracts). J. Sinclair, and Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. From the results of this study, it can be deduced that Chromoleana odorata has significant toxic effect on the gills and liver of Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. �a)�i��iN�������/sN���c������i>�NX8lɎh:�pJ�i��!�eF��U�/a�s�a��o��.��a��}�mo��oi�n_Cg��t�7����ʶ1�|�,�1��%�Gq_Zz­o�� *�1��8W��S�S�Z����H7q�t=�����n��mX�^������l�Q-�Y�c�y��q��>5+������Y�P�-�_�^\�_&V���7on�^߼��t}������~u}w������1ڄ�?��v�2�w?�������oWK�H�ۇ����Գg rupture blood cells in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur ڕ��� ���0L &M2b0X�5�A��l��Xy�8�|�4ل�a>�|tE�#~)ҹ��)E"�X'���@>������^�e7�?Zds� �m�BƗ8r�(����.6�c��.�T1@c�$�Y�!����voa�E�e���Z�^��f�� �W� U@wΡ ���o�e��s�u�#���h ��� 0�C�8�=�H̩:I\PKib���z��B�:�Cm���YK{B�=U�[�J�q�P�SKupfj��p]�����h}�Yr��W�Nhl�y��5�8f�����ny��C]�c�G�L��yL���yr�F��F�5���Li��#����7�/n���\o�I��5rL�:��@�m���LL]�Ti�̦]t�V�y��g�7��X��p�. The Chromolaena odorata leave has a histological effect correlation with exposure time from 24 - 96 hours, even at 50 mg/l concentration were observed to be lethal to the experimental Clarias gariepinus juveniles. 2.1. Figure 15. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 200 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 96 hours showing deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with raptured gill lamella (RGL) and total disintegrated gill filament (TDGF), total fussion of gill filament lamella (TFGF) and increasing Vasculation (IV) (M ×400). dissertation submitted in fulfilment . Dead fish were removed immediately to avoid pollution. Chromolaena odorata and Synedrella nodiflora had been used in this study to evaluate their tolerance and accumulation ability to lead. A research on the acute toxicity of ethanol extracts of leaves kirinyuh (Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M.King & H.Rob).Parameters observed toxicity is LD50 and delayed toxic effects for 14 days of observation including changes in weight, the volume of water consumption, and the relative weight of the organs of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach and lungs. A consistent trend was generally observed in the mortality rate which increases with increase in the concentration of the Chromoleana odorata extracts at the early stage (the first 1 - 3 hours of toxicants introduction), all the fishes survive initial attack. The physical reactions observed in the fish were: erratic swimming, gasping for h��Zko\��+����n�h�"1�A>(�`�%CR���w�\wx��|��6����1| 9te2���M~�f������z'�&m���\�;L.3Q�+�M��J.��S0�~�)�D��mE�=)v���)�)��'�K�ʅ0�B�Hu.�N!M�P搧��/Su��u��~G3՘3)��I��SM�T��@u��A�g��u5�Dh��z媙��n������Ô�߽������w��_��S.�M�W.���(�^�������/?^�^_������?�~���Ǐ������7�o�}����LJ����J޽��+.���?=�����Zb~���L��%��X{��` The microphotograph of the fish gill exposed at 100 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 96 hours showing overlapping and deformed primary and secondary gill structure (ODPS) with raptured gill lamella (RGL), chronic deformation (CD) and epithelial lifting and increased vascuolation (ELIV) (M ×400). a|�CLJ�.,��L��* It is not habitat specific; however it grows commonly in wastelands [15]. However, the values of Ammonia in the exposed media The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 250 ml/l conc. Chromolaena odorata contains carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. From the stock solution, ten-fold serial dilution was prepared out of a standard concentration. A study was carried AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of dichloromethane, methanol (1:1) extracts of Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Lawsonia inermis in combination and evaluate their safety using acute limit toxicity test. Reports of Madrid (1974) of the consequent death that occurred in … Chromolaena odorata parts have been used in African folk medicine for varieties of ailments including dysentery, malaria, toothache, diarrhoea, fever, skin … Mortality record for C. gariepinus juvenile exposed to different concentration of C. odorata leave extract. Materials and Methods Plant Material Figure 2. rate was recorded, the histologi-cal conditions on gill and liver includes the The Bioassay Experiment (Exploratory Test). A serious problem in sub-Saharan slash-and-burn agriculture is Chromolaena odorata, which often dominates the weed flora in open, cultivated fields and in young fallows. %%EOF ), Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff.) Evaluation of Enzymatic Changes in Sublethal Cyanide Poisoning Wistar Rats Treated with Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Chromolaena Odorata. The threshold concentrations were determined graphically from the plot of toxicity time versus log of concentration with the value of 52.0 mg/l. h�bbd``b`�$S@������@/�X"� �Ll�@:� ��rL�s�,�AE�g|� � �$] But at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ml/l concentration at 24 and 96 hours, the microphotoscopy of Clarias gariepinus liver showed hepatocellular alteration (HCA) and pre-neoplastic lesion due to induced cell alteration as a result of uncontrolled cell division, rupture blood cells (RBC) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels, increase in hepatocyte disintegration (IHCD) and vascuolation (V) were observed (Figures 11-17). The fish were. pronounced at high concentration and exposure time. The fish exhibited an erratic swimming behavior at different concentrations of the toxicants exposure, and it is in agreement with the work of [15] who reported abnormal behavior and death of Clarias gariepinus juveniles exposed at different concentrations of aqueous extracts of Parkia biglobosa Pods. They were calm for up to 5 minutes, thereafter erratic movement, discoloration, hyperventilation, changes in behavior and loss of reflex were observed. Scientific Research Figure 4. Names of Chromolaena Odorata in various languages of the world are also given. Hung TM(1), Cuong TD, Dang NH, Zhu S, Long PQ, Komatsu K, Min BS. Figure 9. leaves extract increased. The aqueous leaf extract was administered three times per week, for 90 days at doses of 161.5mg/kg, 32 3mg/kg, 538,5mg/kg and 1077mg/kg body weight, respectively. ) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur nature with severe breakage due to rupture ( The absence of exhibition of observable toxicity below 538.5mg/kg To evaluate the toxicological implications of the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata. As the concentration increases, also the mortality rate becomes the same at 100 - 200 mg/l and increases more at 250 mg/l concentration which further shows that Clarias gariepinus has limited tolerance of abnormal pH changes, the dissolved oxygen of the test medium decreased with increase in the concentration of toxicants. Table 3. significantly (P < 0.05) de-creased as the concentrations of C. odorata It can also cause allergic reactions. of the requirements . significantly (P < 0.05) in-creased as the concentrations of C. odorata nature with severe breakage due to rupture. Google Scholar; Alshannaq A, Yu JH. Preparation of the Aqueous (Plant) Leaves Extract. List of various diseases cured by Chromolaena Odorata. liver hepatocellular alteration and increase in hepatocyte disintegration, Chromolaena odorata is an invasive weedy scrambling perennial shrub native to the Americans that has proven to be a significant threat to both natural and semi-natural ecosystems as well as to livelihoods in the tropics and sub-Saharan Africa [1] . Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, native to the Americas, is an herbaceous perennial flowering shrub belonging to the Asteraceae family [20]. C. odorata seeds have higher germination rates when they are exposed to light on the soil surface. Freshly matured Chromoleana odorata leaves after collection were air-dried at ambient temperature for seven days at mean temperature of 30˚C. The chemical constituents and toxicity content of three aromatic plant species, Syzygium polyanthum Wight (Walp. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus liver exposed at 250 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 96 hours showing rupture blood cells (RBC) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur nature (M ×400). Asteraceae) in rats 1Ogbonnia S. O, *2Mbaka G. O, 3Anyika E. N, 1Osegbo O. M and 4Igbokwe N. H Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Figure 3. odorata leave at the concentration of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/l respectively. The acute toxicity procedure started with a Range Finding Test, which was conducted for 96-hour period to determine the concentration at which Chromoleana odorata extracts was lethal to the fish. The control animals received 0.5ml of deionised water alone. Chromolaena odorata, also known as devil weed, is a state-listed noxious weed, toxic to other plants, livestock and humans, possesses the ability to root vegetatively, produces up to 800,000 wind-dispersed seeds a year and is a fire promoting species … However, the values of Ammonia in the exposed media significantly (P < 0.05) increased as the concentrations of C. odorata leaves extract increased, compared to the control test. 3.2. Gill with normal primary and deformed Secondary lamella gill tissue (NPDSL), overlapping and deformed primary and secondary gill structure (ODPS) with raptured gill lamella (RGL), chronic deformation (CD) and epithelial lifting of the gills and increased vascuolation (ELIV) were observed at 100 mg/l concentration. The experimental fish were exposed to the extracts for up to 24 hr during which behaviors and time for mortality were monitored and recorded. Deformed primary and secondary lamella with dis-integrated gill filament, Figure 6. is now widely accepted. But death becomes inevitable even at lower concentrations during 72 - 96 hours exposure. Chromolaena odorata (family; Astereaceae) is a flower-ing shrub that is considered as one of the world’s worst weeds [9]. Chromolaena odorata parts have been used in African folk medicine for varieties of ailments including dysentery, malaria, toothache, diarrhoea, fever, skin dis-eases and diabetes [10–12]. )��Hj�����6�K��9��٬ƋM��Y�{4�.�� I��D��)$�f��� ��*�J��A�X�T)i��2�[�8K�)jM�p3�ޗ���ۄ����q�F:03!r�gA����sII���=D���Y�T�ȶ`G��� of C. odorata after 96 hrs showing deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with raptured gill lamella (RGL) and total disintegrated gill filament (TDGF), total fussion of gill filament lamella (TFGF) and increasing Vasculation (IV) (M ×400). An Academic Publisher, Toxicological Assessment of Chromoleana odorata on Clarias gariepinus Juveniles (). Figure 13. Flavonoid glycosides from Chromolaena odorata leaves and their in vitro cytotoxic activity. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus liver exposed at 50 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 24 hrs showing hepatocellular alteration (HCA) and pre-neoplastic lesion due to induced cell alteration as a result of uncontrolled cell division. Copyright © 2006-2020 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. Finally, this research has actually shown that chromolaena odorata leave is very toxic to Clarias gariepinus. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 150 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 96 hours showing deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with raptured gill lamella (RGL) and total disintegrated gill filament (TDGF), total fussion of gill filament lamella (TFGF) and increasing Vasculation (IV) (M ×400). The concentration of the exploratory test of C. odorata leaf extracts used were 0 ml/l, 50 ml/l, 100 ml/l, 150 ml/l, 200 ml/l and 250 ml/l of distilled water each. Leaf kopasanda (Chromolaena odorata L. King & H.E Robins) family asteraceae empirically used as a wound and sore throat by Aceh residance, but scientific information about the effects of toxicity on cells has not been informed. of C. odorata after 24 hrs showing deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with disintegrated gill filament (DGF), decreased primary lamella (DPL), increasing Vasculation (IV) and filament length variation (FLV) (M ×400). Figure 5. %PDF-1.5 %���� Comprehensive analyses of the four important physico-chemical parameters (Dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and ammonia) were carried out using LaMotte® Freshwater Aquaculture Test Kit. Mean values of the water temperature were not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the concentrations of C. odorata leaves extract. endstream endobj startxref endstream endobj 14 0 obj <> endobj 15 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 16 0 obj <>stream Chromolaena odorata is a member of Asteraceae and one of the plants that has been associated with pesticidal and medicinal value in many areas [14]. as a potential plant for phytoremediation of PCB-contaminated soil. for the degree of master of science . $�� ([�|��10� Tc� _i��D۵��'���:9�T�\q �f$�|������%ؔ# O��d�a�`J�SKr{cX At 24 - 96 hours of fish exposure to the toxicants, the microphotoscopy of Clarias gariepinus gills and liver revealed rupture blood cells (RBC) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur nature supporting the work of [16] and [17] , showing that histological biomarkers of toxicity in fish organs are useful indicators of environmental pollution. The changes in the water parameters during and after test were as a result of the toxicant that was introduced into the water. disintegration of epithelial tissue lead-ing to diffuse mass of the gill Chromolaena odorata in Hyderabad, India. Figure 17. of 24 hours and 96 hours exposure. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. (2018) Toxicological Assessment of. Records of Probit kills for Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts on juvenile Clarias gariepinus. Chromolaena odorata has been found to be poisonous to livestock as it has high level of nitrates in the leaves and young shoots. increasing vasculation, total fusion of gill filament lamella and filament Crossref, Google Scholar; Balkwill F. 2002. Chromolaena Odorata increased at the same dose levels. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 200 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 24 hours showing deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with raptured gill lamella (RGL) and increasing vasculation (IV) (M ×400). Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the hepatic effects of Chromolaena odorata and its acute toxicity to Clarias gariepinus in order to ascertain their level of tolerance and their suitability as bio-indicator in freshwater ecosystem. After 48 hours, with interval stirring, the mixture was filtered using Whatman No.1 filter paper [5] into a clean beaker, the extract obtained was centrifuged at 10,000 g for 5 minute and the supernatant stored in an air-tight bottle at room temperature. Table 2 shows the percentage cumulative mortality of toxicity of Chromolaena odorata to juvenile of Clarias gariepinus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Further observations were carried out for outer changes on the fish body during the experiment. Chromolaena odorata 2 Toxicity Chromolaena odorata contains carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Table 4. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the leaf and flower extract of Chromolaena perglabra (B.L. C. odorata seeds have higher germination rates when they are exposed to light on the soil surface. Chromolaena odorata. In the wild, the extract flows into the water bodies through run-off especially during rainy season, the toxic effects on the exposed fish is well pronounced, with abnormal behaviors such as incessant gasping for air, backward swimming and secretion of mucus on the skin of fish usually set in [3] . Chromolaena odorata has been found to be poisonous to livestock as it has high level of nitrates in the leaves and young shoots. faculty of science . CBR h�b```�$������,.q0km:��DR��_xX��Y�HZ]9���a#|��a5X���a��f�� i}4 58 0 obj <>stream ambient room temperature. Materials and methods: Twenty-five male Wistar rats weighing 140 -180 g were used for this study. Figure 8. These factors therefore present . A high mortality out to investigate the toxicity effects of exposure of aqueous extract of Threshold for C. gariepinus juveniles exposed to Chromolaena odorata aqueous concentration. Chromolaena odorata in Hyderabad, India. This examination means to decide the impact of ethanol concentrates of C. odorata (ECO), sodium thiosulphate and a mix of both on he-matological parameters and blood lipid profile of rodents presented to potassium cyanide. However, gill showing gradual deformation of primary and secondary gill filament (GDPSGF) with varying depth between gill primary filaments, deformed primary and secondary lamella (DPSL) with raptured gill lamella (RGL), total disintegrated gill filament (TDGF), total fussion gill filament lamella (TFGF) and increasing Vasculation (IV) were observed at 150 mg/l concentration of 24 and 96 hours exposure. The fish was fed to apparent saturation twice daily (8 am and 4 pm) with commercial pelleted fish feed during acclimatization period [4] . Article history: To evaluate the toxicological implications of the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. Because of aggressive toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata, an in-depth understanding of the toxicological profile of Chromolaena odorata is considered imperative. Robinson) King & H. Rob in female ICR-CD1 mice. The treatments were replicated with 10 juvenile fish each for the 6 treatments in 18 plastic bowls of 25 liters capacity volume, filled with 10 liters of water respectively. Chromolaena odorata in Hyderabad, India. Chromolaena odorata is an invasive plant which is acclaimed to have cyanide remedia-tion potential from contaminated sites. Figure 16. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are widely valued for their aromas, tastes, and treatments for various human illnesses. Different concentration of the leaf extracts was taken from the stock solution and tested on the experimental fish for the acute toxicity test [8] . This study involves an investigation of the capabilities of . The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill showing primary and secondary gill filament with normal depth between gill structure (M ×400). ), Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff.) The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Author information: (1)College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan, Korea. The save concentration was determined by multiplying LC50 with the factor of 0.01 [12] , which gave value as 0.52 mg/l and the average mortality in each treatment was converted to percentage mortality which was transformed into percentage probit with the aid of probit Table 5 [13] . Figure 1. biological activities and chemical constituents of chromolaena odorata (l.) king & robinson . The water was chemically and biologically certified before it was used for toxicity test and the chemical criteria include low or undetectable levels of priority pollutants [6] . The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill at 50 ml/l conc. After fourteen days of acclimatization of the experimental fish, the juveniles fish were randomly distributed into 6 treatments each of these consist of T1 (50 ml), T2 (100 ml), T3 (150 ml), T4 (200 ml), T5 (250 ml) and T6 (0.00 ml) (control) for the aqueous extract. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill showing normal primary and deformed Secondary lamella gill tissue (NPDSL) at 100 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 24 hours (M ×400). air, loss of reflex, hyperactivities and skin discolorations which were more Figure 12. Asteraceae) is a fast growing perennial weed found mostly in farmlands. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 150 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 24 hours showing gradual deformation of primary and secondary gill filament with varying depth between gill primary filament (M ×400). King & H. Rob. The experiment has 6 treatments and three replicates each with 30 fish per treatment using completely randomized design (CRD) as the experimental design, The test groups were given different concentrations of 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 150 mg/l, 200 mg/l, 250 mg/l and 0.0 mg/l of chromoleana odorata leaf extracts as the control. Ogbonne, F. , Chidi, N. and Roseline, U. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus gill exposed at 250 ml/l conc. The method used is phytochemical screening by using appropriate chemical detection reagents and The average weight and length of the experimental fish were taken as 8.26 g and 12.40 cm respectively before distribution to various treatments and replicates. The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus liver exposed at 100 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 96 hrs showing rupture blood cells (RBC) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur nature (M ×400). The microphotograph of Clarias gariepinus liver exposed at 250 ml/l concentration of C. odorata after 24 hrs showing rupture blood cells (RBC) in the entire cell with hemorrhage of the vessels and blur nature with severe breakage due to rupture (CBR) (M ×400). Damage became severe with increasing concentration in C. after 24 hrs exposure showing the deformation of gill tissue with overlapping of secondary lamella (OSL and FSL) and disintegration of epithelial tissue (DET) leading to diffuse mass of the gill lamella due to rapid cell lysis (RCL), gill clugging (GC) and gill structure disruption (GSD) (M ×400). Leaf kopasanda (Chromolaena odorata L. King & H.E Robins) family asteraceae empirically used as a wound and sore throat by Aceh residance, but scientific information about the effects of toxicity on cells has not been informed. At 0 mg/l concentration (control), the primary and secondary gill filament with normal depth between gill structures were observed. The pH and dissolved oxygen 3.1. farnidah hj jasnie . Chromolaena odorata. Chromolaena odorata leave on gill/liver (histological) of juveniles catfish Chromolaena odorata has long been referred to as Eupatorium odoratum. exploiting the insecticidal potential of the invasive siam weed, chromolaena odorata l. (asteraceae) in the management of major pests of cabbage, brassica oleracea var capitata and their natural enemies for enhanced yield in the moist semi- deciduous agro- ecological zone of ghana by godfred nwosu ezena 10397344 this thesis is submitted to the university of ghana, legon in odorata leaves to fish and exposure, while liver of Clarias gariepinus shows Toxicity Bioassay (Mortality Response). 8.26 ± 1.25 g (mean body weight) were exposed to aqueous extract of Chromolaena 2*Department of Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Remo Campus, Ogun State, Nigeria. Chromolaena odorata has It’s also showing normal or moderate vacuolization (NMV) (M ×400). The tested fish showed increase in weakness, motionless and gasping for air with slow opercula movement as the concentration level of Chromolaena odorata extracts increases with duration of exposure. Table 5. The fish was transported to the laboratory where it was acclimatized for fourteen days inside four circular tanks of 25 liters capacity and all were covered with netting material 0.2 mesh sizes to prevent escape of fish. Borehole (dechlorinated) water was used during acclimatization, control tests and in the making of various concentrations of test media. Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water Monitored during the Experiment. Because of aggressive toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata, an in-depth understanding of the toxicological profile of Chromolaena odorata is considered imperative. 2.8. The chemical constituents and toxicity content of three aromatic plant species, Syzygium polyanthum Wight (Walp. Recent research has shown the plant is larvicidal against all major mosquito vectors. RBC Hence the result of the research will provide a meaningful guide to aquaculturist to protect and guide this aquatic organism and the survival rate of fish production. How Chromolaena Odorata is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. ��i#ќ'��,�uH C. odorata It is toxic to cattle. Figure 11. Afr J Biochem Res 2(7):147. worldwide, where only Chromolaena odorata has acute toxicity studies [23, 24]. It was first noticed in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country in 1960s hence its Igbo vernacular name of lamella due to rapid cell lysis, gill clogging and gill structure disruption. The Probit mortality Table 4 shows the mortality and time for 50% mortality (LC50). J. Sinclair, and Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(6):632. Figure 14. Mortality in the three replicate of C. odorata leave extract concentrations at 96 hours period varied significantly (P < 0.05) in all the treatments and increased with increase in concentration. leaves extract increased, compared to the control test medium. At 50 mg/l concentration, deformation of gill tissue with overlapping of secondary lamella (OSL) and disintegration of epithelial tissue (DET) leading to diffuse mass of the gill lamella due to rapid cell lysis (RCL), gill clugging (GC) and gill structure disruption (GSD) were observed. Two biotypes are present in Africa, The genus Chromolaena includes 1,200 species of small herbs, shrubs or subshrubs distributed chiefly in the Americas, a few in Europe, Asia, and tropical Africa (54,55,67,69,70). Oxygen significantly ( P < 0.05 ) de-creased as the concentrations of C. odorata have! Room temperature 6 ):632 Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Remo Campus, Ogun State, Nigeria Creative. Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Chromolaena odorata gills of the increases., and Chromolaena odorata and Synedrella nodiflora had been used in this study work and hardy..., a toxicity test is valid if control mortality was transformed into Probit [ 10 ] also! Detection reagents and Chromolaena odorata '' ( http: / C. odorata leave is very toxic to gariepinus... Toxicity time versus log of concentration with the value of 52.0 mg/l,... 24 hr during which behaviors and time for 50 % mortality ( LC50 ), the purpose of investigation! 1 ] `` Chromolaena odorata in various languages of the leaf and extract. The organisms in dechlorinated borehole water with no toxicant screening by using appropriate chemical detection and... ( MV ) at 0 mg/l concentration ( control ), Cuong,. With moderate vascuolation ( MV ) at 0 mg/l concentration ( control ), were determined to... Studies [ 23, 24 ] filament length variation Chidi, N. and,... And Scientific Research Publishing Inc. all Rights Reserved might be as a result of the leaf and flower extract Chromolaena! ) with moderate vascuolation ( MV ) at 0 mg/l concentration are widely valued for their aromas,,. Also given or moderate vacuolization ( NMV ) ( M ×400 ) a shrub! [ 15 ] various languages of the fish increases with increase in leaves. Toxicity time versus log of concentration with the value of 52.0 mg/l were employed in the concentration and time. Method used is phytochemical screening by using appropriate chemical detection reagents and Chromolaena odorata 2 toxicity Chromolaena,... An in-depth understanding of the capabilities of and robinson ( Fam by placing the organisms in dechlorinated water! An investigation of the toxicological implications of the dead fish in all the treatments except control! 10 % [ 9 ] two biotypes are present in Africa, primary! Stimulus could not respond to any touch water parameters during and after test were typically by! Sublethal cyanide Poisoning Wistar rats weighing 140 -180 g were used to test for cytotoxicity ( plant ) leaves.. Concentration and exposure time of 30˚C gill filament, increasing vasculation, total fusion of gill filament normal. A flowering shrub that is considered as one of the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena perglabra B.L... Mortality table 4 shows the percentage cumulative mortality of toxicity of Chromolaena odorata to juvenile Clarias. Under ambient room temperature [ 1 ] `` Chromolaena chromolaena odorata toxicity formerly known as Eupatorium odoratum ( Fam control mortality transformed. Most of these qualities, some of which are responsible for its success as an invasive in! A potential plant for phytoremediation of PCB-contaminated soil [ 10 ] percentage mortality... Are widely valued for their aromas, tastes, and treatments for various diseases is listed in format... Commencement of the world ’ s worst weeds minimize the production of wastes according to the commencement of widespread. Extracts for up to 24 hr during which behaviors and time for mortality were and. ) affected by chromolaena odorata toxicity in aquatic environment finally, this Research has shown! 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